Jerusalem Old City Attractions

The main reason to visit Jerusalem, is the Old City. After some of the inhabitants in Jerusalem, started to settled out of the walls (19th Century), the city inside the wall started to be called "The Old City". In fact, there are much older places outside the wall of the Old City. In this page I'm going to focus in all the sites which are nearby the Old City, as well to the sites which are inside the wall.

Today, inside the Old City, there are around 34,000 inhabitants. the majority inside the Old city are the Muslims, but the majority in Jerusalem are the Jews. The Jews began to be the biggest community in Jerusalem since 1840 and the majority since 1880 (Under the ottomans' regime)- inside the Old City (Attached a table which describe the number of the inhabitants in Jerusalem).

However, although the Jews were the majority in Jerusalem, the Ottomans and the British treated them as the Minority in the city, and they chose that the mayor in charge of the city will be, all the time, a Muslim. This fact prevented from the Jews, a free access to some of the Holy places of the Jews such as King David's tomb, Temple Mount and sometimes even to the Western Wall.

In 1948, The Jordanian forces (encourage by the British), occupied the Old City, and exile the Jews from it. In 1967 we liberated the city, and since then, the City is open to all the religions for visiting and worship.

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In order to see the main attractions and sites, in the Old City area, you have to spend at least two days there:

- One day to see all the sites which are nearby the Old city.

- Second day to see the old city itself.

It means you have to spend at least 3-4 days in Jerusalem (there are people that spent, in the Jerusalem, 5-6 days, and still feel that they missed several sites...). So let's start.

1. Mt Zion King David's Tomb- King David's Tomb is located on Mt Zion. In the bible it's written (1 Kings 2:10-12): "Then David rested with his ancestors and was buried in the City of David. He had reigned forty years over Israel—seven years in Hebron and thirty-three in Jerusalem. So Solomon sat on the throne of his father David, and his rule was firmly established.".

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We definitely know, that Mt Zion wasn't a part of the city of David in those times. The question that should be asked is, why the Byzantines decided that this is the place? Why the Muslims decided that this the place? why the Jews adopted this believe?

Well, most of the Archeologic and historians don't think that this is the place. BUT, and yes- there is a "but". In excavations that had been done in this place during the centuries, several things were found:

1.1. Remains of a Byzantine Church which the Apse is directed to the Temple Mountain.

1.2. Some of the stones which were used for the Byzantine Church were reused from an older period. These stones weren't dated.

1.3. Remains of a Muslim Building and mark of grave of King David.

1.3. Ermete Pierotti, an Italian Archeologist from the 19th Century, discovered a cave beneath King David's Tomb compound. he assumed that this is the burial cave of King David. Dr Amit Re'em (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) Succeeded to enter to this cave in 2016. It starts at a western position to King David's tomb compound, and ends exactly beneath the Mark of the grave of King David. He said that it can be a burial cave or a huge water cistern.

To summarized this issue, well, most of the historians still think that the grave isn't there, but due to the remains which were found, and the speculation regarding them, we cannot completely deny this.

2. The Upper Room (The room of the last supper)- The last supper event is mentioned in several places, in the new testament (for example: Mark 14:12-26).

Dining room in Latin is coenaculum. In Mark 14:12 its written: "On the first day of the Festival of Unleavened Bread, when it was customary to sacrifice the Passover lamb, Jesus’ disciples asked him, “Where do you want us to go and make preparations for you to eat the Passover?”

The first question is, when the last supper took place?

Prof Colin Humphreys from Cambridge University says discrepancies in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke as compared with John arose because they used an older calendar than the official Jewish one.

He concluded the date was 1 April AD33.

This could also mean Jesus' arrest, interrogation and separate trials did not all take place on one night only.

Prof Humphreys believes his findings could present a case for finally fixing Easter Day to the first Sunday in April.

In his new book, The Mystery of the Last Supper, he uses Biblical, historical and astronomical research to address the fundamental inconsistency about the event.

While Matthew, Mark and Luke say the Last Supper coincided with the start of the Jewish festival of Passover, John claims it took place before Passover.

"This has puzzled Biblical scholars for centuries. In fact, someone said it was 'the thorniest subject in the New Testament'," he told the BBC's Today programme.

"If you look at all the events the Gospels record - between the Last Supper and the Crucifixion - there is a large number. It is impossible to fit them in between a Thursday evening and Friday morning."

"But I found that two different calendars were involved. In fact, the four gospels agree perfectly," he added.

Prof Humphreys argues that Jewish people would never have mistaken the Passover meal for another meal because it is so important.

He suggests that Matthew, Mark and Luke used an old-fashioned Jewish calendar - adapted from Egyptian usage at the time of Moses - rather than the official lunar calendar which was in widespread use at the time.

You can read the whole article in the link: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-13114124

Of course that the Catholic church is disagree to Prof Humphreys.

Dr. Brant Pitre, which is Distinguished Research Professor of Scripture at the Augustine Institute (Catholic), Published an article in 2017 regarding this issue.

He is starting with the question: Was the Last Supper a Passover meal or some sort of pre-Passover “farewell” meal? Does John have the story right, or do Matthew, Mark, and Luke?

Pitre’s solution is to show that the word “Passover” could have any one of four different meanings at the time of Jesus. It could refer:

First, to the Passover lamb, as in “And they killed the Passover on the fourteenth day of the month”).

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חדר הסעודה האחרונה קרדיט Assaf Shtilman.

Second, to the Passover meal, as in, “I will eat the Passover with you.”

Third, to the Passover peace offering eaten during the weeklong feast of Unleavened Bread that coincided with Passover, as in Dt 16:1-3 which says: “And you shall sacrifice the Passover to the Lord your God … You shall eat no leavened bread with it; seven days you shall eat it with the unleavened bread, the bread of affliction.” And,

Fourth, to the Passover Week, which is also called the Festival of Unleavened Bread, as in Luke 22:1, which says “Now the fest of Unleavened Bread drew near, which is called the Passover.” So too the Jewish historian Josephus writes: “When the feast of Unleavened Bread, which we call Passover, was going on ….”

We can understand the possible confusion if we consider our own use of the word “Easter.” When someone says, “We need flowers for Easter,” does he mean flowers for the Easter Vigil, Easter day, Easter week (the Octave of Easter), or the “Easter Season,” which liturgically extends to Pentecost, but which many people simply associate with “the spring”?

You can read the whole article in the link:  https://www.catholicworldreport.com/2019/04/18/when-was-the-last-supper/

I'm not going to take a stand in this issue. Anyway, the room today is above King David's tomb, it was built in the Crusaders period (on the ruins of the Byzantine room), Converted to a mosque in The end of the 13th century, and reconvert to worship area when the state of Israel took control of the compound. The building has experienced numerous cycles of destruction and reconstruction, culminating in the Gothic structure which stands today.

3. Abbey of the Dormition - Abbey of the Dormition is an abbey which was founded by Wilhelm the 2nd (Austrian-Hungarian Emperor) during his visit in Israel (Palestine in those days) in 1898 (The foundation stone was laid on 7 October 1900). 
Construction was completed in only 10 years, the basilica was dedicated on 10 April 1910 by the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. The Abbey was built in an ecclesiastical, neo-Romanesque style that had become the state style of the new Imperial Germany.  the abbey belongs today to the Benedictine community in Jerusalem.
More information about the Benedictine community you can read in the link of the website attached: https://www.conceptionabbey.org/what-is-a-benedictine-monk/

The present church is a circular building with several niches containing altars, and a choir. Two spiral staircases lead to the crypt, the site ascribed to the Dormition of the Virgin Mary, and also to the organ-loft and the gallery, from where two of the church's four towers are accessible.Link to the abbey website is: http://www.dormitio.net/abtei/index.html

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4. Church of Saint Peter in Gallicantu- Church of Saint Peter in Gallicantu is a Roman Catholic church located on the eastern slope of Mount Zion.
The church takes its name from the Latin word "Gallicantu", meaning cock's-crow. This is in commemoration of Peter's triple rejection of Jesus "... before the cock crows twice." (Mark 14:30).
This spot is also believed to be the location of the High Priest Caiaphas' palace. According to the Pilgrim of Bordeaux in his Itinerarium Burdigalense, "...going up from the Pool of Siloe to Mount Zion one would come across the House of the Priest Caiaphas."
In the courtyard of the church, there is a statue that depicts the events of the denial and include its main figures; the cock, the woman, and the Roman soldier.
The main sanctuary contains large, multi-colored mosaics portraying figures from the New Testament. Beneath the upper church is a chapel which incorporates stone from ancient grottos inside its walls. Down a hole in the center of the sanctuary one can see caves that may have been part of the Byzantine shrine. These walls are engraved with crosses left by fifth-century Christians. On an even lower level there is a succession of caves from the Second Temple period. Since tradition places the palace of Caiaphas on this site, many believe that Jesus may have been imprisoned in one of these underground crypts after his arrest, however, these caves were normal in many Roman-era homes, and often served as cellars, water cisterns, and baths. On the north side of the church is an ancient staircase that leads down towards the Kidron Valley. This may have been a passage from the upper city to the lower city during the first temple period. Many Christians believe that Jesus followed this path down to Gethsemane the night of his arrest.
Link to the church website is: https://www.stpeter-gallicantu.org/?lang=en

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5. City of David (ancient Jerusalem)- The City of David, is one of the most important sites in the Jerusalem.

The Recognition of this site as the City of David, started in the 19th century (the Ottoman period), when Charles Warren who discovered it in 1867 (Warren's Shaft).  For a long time, researchers assumed that the shaft was part of the ancient water system that gave the Canaanite residents of the city of Jebus access to the Gihon Spring in times of siege. Since the 1995 excavations, the accepted assumption is that the shaft was only made during the period of the Kingdom of Judah, and that the Canaanites drew water from a large pool excavated in the rock within the city's fortification walls.

In this site you can see the Canaanite tunnel (The dry one) from 13th Century BC, The Hezekiah's Tunnel (1st Temple Time)- which still full with water, The Pool of Siloam: An ancient pool at the point where the Gihon Spring flows into the city of David, Area G: The excavation area on the eastern slopes of the City of David, (Dr Kathleen Kenyon in the 1960s, and later by archaeologist Yig'al Shilo). Magnificent buildings from the First Temple period were found in this area, apparently part of the government complex of that time, The Gihon Spring fortifications (the Canaanite period -18th century BCE), and more...Don't miss it!

At night (if you still have the strengths) you can see the Night Show of the City of David. A sample of it you can see in the attached link (in the site you get earphones with translation to English):https://youtu.be/Vjxxj5gBles

Link to the City of David website is: https://www.cityofdavid.org.il/en/about

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6. Valley of Jehoshaphat (Kidron valley)- Valley of Jehoshaphat, is located between the Temple Mount and Mount of Olive.
The name was given to it, from Joel 4:2 "I will gather all nations and bring them down to the Valley of Y’hoshafat [Adonai judges]. I will enter into judgment there for my people, my heritage Israel, whom they scattered among the nations; then they divided my land".
the place is also called Kidron Valley, also from the Bible, after Avshalom, the son of king David, revolt against him, and King David had to run out from Jerusalem, it's written in 2 Samuel 15:23 "The whole countryside wept aloud as all the people passed by. The king also crossed the Kidron Valley, and all the people moved on toward the wilderness.".
This valley is sacred to all the religions. 
for the Jews, it's the necropolis of the 1st Temple Time. You can find there the tomb of Avshalom (the son of King David), the tomb of Zechariah (Zechariah is described in Scripture as the son of Jehoiada the priest, during the reign of Joash king of Judah), the tomb of Bnei Chazir (a priest family which served the Temple), the tomb of the daughter of Pharaoh (which was the wife of king Solomon), and many more.
For the Christians you can add to the list also the Orthodox tomb of Mary (the mother of Jesus), the betrayal cave (where Juda betrayed Jesus), Gethsemane Garden, The St. Stefanos Greek Orthodox Church - one of the first Martyrs.
For the some of the Muslim's branches - it's the entrance to heaven.
In September there are night visits of Jews in the valley, to mention the new Jewish year which is starting in September (Prayer of forgiveness). You can see one of the celebrations, which I organized, in the link: https://youtu.be/ahDlJFidKwU
The valley is a walking distance from the old city, City of David, and Gethsemane Church.
Very impressive!

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7. Observing from the Mount of Olives- This is one of the most beautiful Urban observation in the world! From there you can see most of Jerusalem (Old and New), you get the orientation of the localization of the sites, and it's really recommended to start the tour in Jerusalem only after visiting this observation. If you are without a tour guide- it's useless, because you won't understand what you see (and I'm really not trying to promote something...).
The observation is located on the summit of Mount of olives, and Beneath it, on the slop of the mountain you can see the one of the oldest active cemeteries in the world (3000 years old). You will see the Old City like a Slice on your palm, and all the other important sites, including the City of David, the new city, and all the important sites inside the Old City.

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8. Gethsemane garden and Church, Jerusalem- The Gethsemane Garden and Church are at the foot of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem where, according to the four Gospels of the New Testament, Jesus underwent the agony in the garden and was arrested the night before his crucifixion. It is a place of great resonance in Christianity. There are several small olive groves in church property, all adjacent to each other and identified with biblical Gethsemane.
The Catholic church was built in 1924, and designed to illustrated, the night event of the agony- as it was.
You can see a mass that took place in Gethsemane Church, in 2019: https://youtu.be/qWrpvFakDrg

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9. The Garden Tomb Jerusalem- The Garden Tomb in Jerusalem, is the place which the Protestants believe that Jesus was buried (before his resurrection).
The garden located few hundred yards/Meters north to the Old City. The Protestants decided that this is the place according to what is written in John 19:40-42 "Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury. Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulcher, wherein was never man yet laid. There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day; for the sepulcher was nigh at hand.".
All the other branches of Christianity, believe that Jesus was buried in the Holy sepulcher (Today it located inside the Old City).
I'm not going to enter myself to this big dispute, and to justify one of the sides. 
Link to the Garden Tomb's website is: https://gardentomb.com/

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The Old City- In the second part of this page, I'm going to focus on the sites inside the Old City. Since the 19th century till today, the city (today we call it "The Old City of Jerusalem") was divided, by the Ottomans, to four quarters- Muslim, Armenian, Christian, and Jewish.

They felt that this is the easy way to rule, in a such complicated environment. The British, which Conquered the country from the Ottomans in the end of 1917, maintained the situation, and due to the Status quo of Jerusalem, the partition to quarters remains until today.

There is a proverb that say that you can step on one paving stone in the Old City, and to hear four stories from four different periods, regarding the same paving stone. Well, the truth is not far from this. So let's start.

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10. Tower of David- The Tower of David is an ancient citadel located near Jaffa Gate, the western entrance to the Old City of Jerusalem.
The citadel that stands today dates to the Mameluke and Ottoman periods. It was built on the site of a series of earlier ancient fortifications of the Hasmonean, Herodian, Byzantine and Early Muslim periods, after being destroyed repeatedly during the last decades of Crusader presence in the Holy Land by their Muslim enemies. It contains important archaeological finds dating back over 2,500 years including a quarry dated to the First Temple period, and is a popular venue for benefit events, craft shows, concerts, and sound-and-light performances.
Inside the citadel there is a museum which describe the history of Israel from the Canaanite Period 3200 BC till 1917- when the British had Conquered the country from the Ottomans.
At evening there is a Night Show.  The Night Shows at the Tower of David are a multi-sensory experience that combines past and future with the world's most advanced technologies. The walls of the fort serve as decor for the night shows and for the celebration of sights and sounds.
Link to the Tower of David website is: https://www.tod.org.il/en/

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11. The ramparts walk- The ramparts walk is an interesting experience for adults and Kids as well.
Wonderful and challenging walking tour for the whole family through the treasures of the past, the present and future entwined. Bird’s-eyes view and the history of the old and the new city.

From the top of the wall, you can see the old city versus the new, from ancient historical sites and to the newest neighborhoods and central parts of the capital.
There are two path of walking from Jaffa gate- South to The Dung gate, and North to Damascus gate.
You can buy tickets to both Promenades, near Jaffa gate. Be aware from crooks which will sell you the tickets twice the original price.
The link to The ramparts walk website is: https://www.pami.co.il/en/Tour%20Sites/

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12. The Armenian Quarter- In the early 4th century, Armenia, under king Tiridates III, became the first country to adopt Christianity as a state religion. A large number of Armenian monks have settled in Jerusalem as early as the 4th century, after the uncovering of Christian holy places in the city. However, the first written records are from the 5th century. Jerusalem is thus considered the oldest living diaspora community outside the Armenian homeland. Philip Marsden wrote that the survival of Armenians in Jerusalem–"most intense of all cities"—proves their extraordinary resilience. Armenian churches were constructed during that period, including the St. James Monastery. The latter was last expanded in the mid-12th century.

Today, due to traditional customs and habits, the Armenians aren't encouraging visitors to come to their quarter. That is the reason why, until today, you'll hardly find inside the quarter souvenir shops, restaurants or hotels. That's what gives this quarter it's unique romantic environment.

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13. The Hurva Synagogue- Nowadays, visitors to the rebuilt synagogue can admire the special beauty of its interior, view the world’s tallest Holy Ark (which contains the synagogue’s Torah scrolls) and hear the fascinating story of the Hurva Synagogue. They can see history with their own eyes, and enjoy the breathtaking 360-degree view of Jerusalem from the veranda surrounding the synagogue’s dome.
The Hurva Synagogue is located at the heart of the Jewish Quarter, and it is one of the most beautiful and impressive synagogues in Jerusalem. It was built, in the first place, in the 18th century, but it was destroyed after few years by the Arabs which loaned money to the Jews, but didn't get their money back.
The second time it was built in the 19th century, and had been destroyed by the Jordanian Army in 1948. This is the 3rd time it was built. That's why it called "HURVA" which means in Hebrew "ruined house".

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14. The Cardo of Jerusalem- The Cardo (Heart in Latin) was the main street in Ancient Roman cities, running from north to south and lined with a row of columns on each side. The Cardo of Jerusalem begins at the Damascus Gate in the north and crosses the city southwards until the area of the Zion Gate.

The Cardo is depicted in the Madaba Map, part of a floor mosaic dated to the 6th century AD that was discovered in a Byzantine church in Madaba, Jordan. A copy of this part of the map is presented also in the today's Cardo.

The northern section of the Cardo stretches from the Damascus Gate to David Street, and dates back to Roman times. The southern section stretches from this point to the length of the western side of the Jewish Quarter and was built in the Byzantine period, in the 6th century AD, continuing the Roman Cardo to its north.

The Roman Cardo was established after the Jews revolt against the Roman in 135 AD by Hadrian (Hadrianus in Latin) - the Roman emperor in those times. He exiled the Jews from Jerusalem, destroyed the Jewish city, build a new Roman City, and even changed the city name to Ilya Capitolina ("The capitol" in Latin).

The Cardo was comprised of a central lane, open to the sky, for the passage of carriages and animals, flanked on each side by colonnaded covered walkways for pedestrians. The road is paved with stone slabs and is 22.5 meters wide. In some sections of the Cardo, excavations revealed covered stalls and workshops that stood alongside the walkways.

In the southern section of the Cardo, buildings from later periods were removed, revealing the Byzantine Cardo level. Some of the columns were restored, and today you can stroll through the Cardo just like the residents of Jerusalem used to in the 6th century AD.

In the northern section of the Cardo, the bazaar built by the Crusaders in the 12th century was uncovered and restored to its function as a shopping area. While the shops there sell modern merchandise, they retain an aura of history.

Link to the Cardo website is: https://www.rova-yehudi.org.il/sites/the-cardo/

15. The Burnt House - The Burnt House is an Archeological Site which tells the story of the last days of Jerusalem, under the Roman sieging, till the destruction of the 2nd Temple in 70 AD.

The Burnt House is one of the most moving testimonies of the events that preceded the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.

This house is one of the nobility houses of the city of Jerusalem were built on Mount Zion, also known as – “The Western Hill”. In the burnt house, in a large layer of ash was found a broken stone weight bearing an inscription in contemporary Hebrew script that everyone can read today. “D’Bar Katros”, the inscription was deciphered and interpreted as “of son of Katros”.

Two other exciting finds were found in the excavations. A metal spear and the remains of a young woman’s arm.

A spectacular audio-visual display in a variety of languages ​​will bring us back in time and bring us into family life in the last days before the fall of the Second Temple. In addition, there is a display of archaeological artifacts found in excavations at the site.

Very nice for families which want to give the kids a personal experience from those times.

Link to the Burnt House website is: https://www.rova-yehudi.org.il/sites/the-burnt-house/

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16. The Herodian Quarter- The Herodian Quarter is a fascinating Archeological site. This site (which is today an underground site), shows compound of six houses which were belongs to the aristocratic (mainly priests - Cohens) from the Temple Mount.
The remains which were found in the excavation are amazing. To see how rich, they were, the Mosaics everywhere, the private water cisterns, the private aqueducts, gives you a real impression how rich and corrupt they were, before Jerusalem had been destroyed by the Romans.
The Herodian Quarter was named this because the houses date to King Herod’s reign. Jerusalem is growing and spreading toward the western hill, those new neighborhoods being built, populated by wealthy Jerusalemites, some of whom were apparently from the priestly families. The houses that were revealed after the Six-Day War in the excavations in the Jewish Quarter tell us about the wealth and splendor that the inhabitants of Jerusalem lived in those days. We will enter the cellars, the kitchens and the living rooms of those people. 
The wealth and splendor that appear in the sources of the Sages and in other historical sources attest to the great social inequality that was a major part of the problems of Jewish society during this period. Inequality that led to civil war and finally, even to the destruction of the Temple and Jerusalem. The houses in the Herodian Quarter were discovered burnt and destroyed by the fierce fire that raged in the area about a month after the destruction of the Temple.
Link to the Herodian Quarter website is: https://www.rova-yehudi.org.il/sites/the-herodian-quarter-the-wohl-museum/

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17. The Western Wall, (Wailing Wall, or Kotel) -  The Western Wall is the most significant site (but less holy than mount Moriah) in the world for the Jewish people. Jews from around the world gather here to pray.  People write notes to God, and place them between the ancient stones of the Wall.

Mount Moriah, according to Jewish tradition, is the place where many pivotal events in Jewish history took place.  Traditionally, creation of the world began from the Foundation Stone at the peak of the mountain.  This is also where Adam, the first human, was created.

Later on, the Holy of Holies – the core and heart of the First and Second Temples - was built around the Foundation Stone.

 In the year 37 BCE, Herod was appointed king in Jerusalem. He soon initiated a huge renovation project for the Temple.  He hired many workers who toiled to make the Temple more magnificent and to widen the area of the Temple Mount by flattening the mountain peak and building four support walls around it. The Western Wall we know of, is one of these four support walls.

The Western wall is a relatively small segment of a far longer ancient retaining wall, known also in its entirety as the "Western Wall". All the four walls exist till today, and soround the Temple Mount. The reason thhat the Western Wall is more important than the others, is the fact that it is the nearest wall to the place, where the Holy of Holies was located in the Temple.

Everyone (Jews and Non-Jews) can approach to the wall, Pray and put notes between the stones.

You can see one of the most popular prayers in the Western Wall in the attached link: https://youtu.be/tO8M-5YUl94

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18. The Temple Mount- The Temple Mount (also Mount Moriah), is the Most holy place for the Jewish people, and the third holy place for the Muslims (after Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia).

For most of the Orthodox Jews, it's forbidden to climb on the mountain till the 3rd Temple will be built. But, other Jews (The majority), consider the visit on the mountain as a privilege.

So, although the status quo say that only Muslim can pray on the mountain (24/7), the mountain is open also for non-Muslims people for five days a week, four hours a day- just for visiting, not for worship or pray!

The present site is a flat plaza surrounded by retaining walls (including the Western Wall) which was built during the reign of Herod the Great for an expansion of the temple. The plaza is dominated by three monumental structures from the early Islam period (7th century AD): the al-Aqsa Mosque, the Dome of the Rock and the Dome of the Chain, as well as four minarets. Herodian walls and gates, with additions from the late Byzantine and early Islamic periods. Currently it can be reached through eleven gates, ten reserved for Muslims and one for non-Muslims, with guard posts of Israeli police in the vicinity of each.

On the mountain you find a Header of a Pillar from the yard of the 2nd Temple, in excavation that were made in the past, we found remains from the 2nd Temple time such as coins, piece of scrolls in Hebrew, and tools which were used in the Temple.

Even the Mufti (Muslim Leader) of Jerusalem, which was the founder of the Palestinian National Movement in 1920, wrote in his book 'Haram A-Sheriff': "its identity with the site of Solomon's Temple is beyond dispute.".

on the mountain you can, the see the Dome of the Rock, which was built in the 8th Century AD, The Crusaders Palace which was convert to a Mosque - When Salah A-Din Conquered the city from the Crusaders (12th century AD), and many buildings, mainly from the Mamelukes period (13th Century AD) and more.

19. The Western Wall Tunnel- The Western Wall of the Temple Mount is one of the most magnificent and significant remains in Jerusalem from the days of the Second Temple, destroyed in 70 AD.

The Western Wall stretches along almost half a kilometer, but today, the part visible to all at the Western Wall Plaza is a mere 70 meters of it. The tour of the Western Wall Tunnels allows visitors to reach the segments of the Wall hidden from view, and to touch the original and special stones that tell the story of the Jewish nation. Visitors to the Western Wall Tunnels walk through ancient and fascinating subterranean spaces with exquisite archeological findings, such as large stone arches, water pits, an ancient water aqueduct that ends at the Strouthion Pool, and more.

The tour of the Tunnels includes innovative virtual models. It is considered an international attraction and it is most recommended to people who like the genre.

Link to the Western Wall website is: https://english.thekotel.org/western_wall_sites/western_wall_tunnels

20. Church of Saint Anne, Jerusalem- The Church of Saint Anne, is a French Roman Catholic church and French national domain. It located near the Lions' Gate, and 100 meters from the start of the Via Dolorosa in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.

The site is a compound of three sites:

20.1. The actual Church of St Anne was built sometime between 1131 and 1138, during the reign of Queen Melisende. It was erected near the remains of the Byzantine basilica, over the site of a grotto believed by the Crusaders to be the childhood home of the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus. It is dedicated to Anne and Joachim, the parents of Saint Mary, who according to tradition lived here.

Unlike many other Crusader churches, St. Anne's was not destroyed after Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn's 1187 conquest of Jerusalem. In 1192 Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn, converted the building into a madrasa (Islamic educational institution), as he did also to the Crusaders palace in the Temple Mount, and to the Church in Abu Gosh (which today is the Benedictine Monastery. Even today, there is still written in the Arabic inscription above the entrance.

In 1856, in gratitude for French support during the Crimean War, the Ottoman Sultan presented it to Napoleon III. It was subsequently restored, but the majority of what remains today is original. Since 1878, it has been administered by the Missionaries of Africa, a catholic order, commonly called "The White Fathers", for the color of their robes.

20.2. A Byzantine basilica, was built over the remains of the shrine in the 5th century. Partially destroyed by the Persians in 614, it was subsequently restored. Baldwin I, the first titled Crusader king of Jerusalem, banished his wife Arda to the old Benedictine convent which still existed here in 1104. In the area of the Byzantine church there is a cave, that people believe that the miracle of the Healing the paralytic at Bethesda (John 5:1-15) took place there.

20.3. Bethesda pools. "Bethesda" it's meanless in English. In Hebrew it's means The House of Grace. These pools were used for washing and purify the animals, before they were brought to be sacrificed at the Temple. But, near these pools there are caves, which people, that where dying from disease, came to be close to The House of God, before they pass away. That's why this place also called The Pools of the House of Grace.

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21. Via Dolorosa- Via Dolorosa (The way of suffering- in Latin), is a way inside the Old City, which people believe (Catholics and the Christians Orthodox) that this way is the path that Jesus walked on the way to his crucifixion.

It starts at the Antonia (The Roman Citadel- near the exit of the Western Wall Tunnels) and ended at the Holy Sepulcher- where the Catholics and the Christians Orthodox believe that Jesus was crucified and Buried.

The Via Dolorosa path, pass several streets, mainly in the Muslim Quarter. The traditional belief is that this road is a combination of 14 stations, belief which started in the Crusaders Period.

Beginning around 1350, Franciscan friars conducted official tours of the Via Dolorosa, from the Holy Sepulcher to the House of Pilate—opposite the direction travelled by Christ in Bible. The rout includes 14 stations (eight of them in the Muslim quarter) the 9th station is on the roof of the Ethiopian Church near the Holy Sepulcher, the 10th station is near the entrance of the Holy Sepulcher, and stations No 11-14 located inside the church of the Holy Sepulcher.

The rout in the Muslim Quarter is in small alleys with stores of souvenirs, restaurants, and food stands.

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22. The Church of the Holy Sepulcher- The Church of the Holy Sepulcher, was established in the year 1149 by the Crusader Queen Melisende, on the ruin of the Byzantine Church which was built in 349 AD by Helena (The mother of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine).

Stations No 11 and 12 are located on the second floor of the Church.

Although the church looks pretty small from the outside, it's one of the biggest churches in the world. In addition to the 14 stations, there are a lot of Chapels, the main ones are Helena Chapel (where Helena found the Cross), Adam Chapel (The place that Adam is Buried - according to traditional belief), Mary Magdalen Chapel, The Yard's Chapel (near the tomb), and many other places such as the Burial caves of the priests, and others...

Inside the Church (Stations 11-14), there is a huge queue in order to enter the tomb (Rotunda in Latin). If you don't want to stand in the queue (can last more than an hour), you can look at it from the outside.

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23. The Old City Market - The Old City Market is a phrase which describe the stores in the Muslim and Christian quarters. You can a buy in a very decent stores in the Jewish market, but when people speak about the Old City Market, they mainly mean to the stores and restaurants in the Muslim and Christian quarters.
So, before I will write about the Old City Market, I will write few words about what you can buy in the Armenian and Jewish Quarters. 
23.1. Armenian quarter- In the Armenian quarter, actually there is nothing to buy. But, if you look for a post office, you will find it in the Armenian quarter near the entrance of David Tower. If you want to eat in a reasonable restaurant there, you'll find the Bulghourji restaurant - near St. James street. Beside that you find 2-3 stores of Armenian Ceramic.
23.2. Jewish Quarter- In the Jewish quarter, you can find few things:
23.2.1. Official ATM of a Bank- very important not to use the ATM elsewhere in the old city (private ATMs in the Old City Market are not reliable).
23.2.2. Shopping area- in the Jewish Quarter you have several shopping areas, dining areas and food court, all of them are concentrated near the Cardo (in a range of 100 Meters). In the cardo you'll find mainly art stores, with Jewish art (paintings, statues, jewelry, Tallit, Books, Mezuzot, and many other things).
Now, regarding The Old City Market. First of all, some warnings. don't forget that you are in a tourist area. So:
- Never buy things, before asking in advance "how much it cost?".
- Remember, that the first price you'll get, is probably twice or three times more expensive than the price that Israeli will pay (you have to bargain).
- Never exchange money in the old city market or use the ATM (including near Jaffa gate!). As i said earlier, In the Armenian quarter you have Official Post Office, and in the Jewish quarter you have Bank with ATM (in both places you can exchange).
- Don't buy antiques in the Old City, unless you can distinguish between fake things and original. Same thing regarding Jewelries.
After what i said, what can you buy there? T-Shirts, statues from olive wood, Rosary chain, post cards, bags (they are not made from leather- although it's look like leather. Please ignore the flame performance that the sellers doing), Clothes, coats, hats and small souvenirs.
in addition to that, it's really nice experience to smell all the spices, the food, and sweets they offer. To be there without try some of these sweets, it's like you haven't been in the market...

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